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A biological assignation, given to a person based on primary sex characteristics (such as external genitalia) and reproductive functions. For example, a baby who is born with what appears to be a vulva is assigned female because medically, we associate the presence of a vulva as that person being biologically female. 

It’s important to note, though, that primary sex characteristics are not a definitive method of deducing biological sex. Intersex people, for example, often have a mix of female and male primary and secondary sex characteristics. It’s impossible to know exactly what someone’s biological sex is without in-depth medical and scientific testing, and even everyone is born with a unique blend of sex characteristics. Therefore biological sex is more of a spectrum than a binary (male-female).

Sometimes the terms ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are used interchangeably, however they are completely separate distinctions.

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